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Thursday, April 22, 2010

SAM analysis

The IAPS consists of hundreds of pictures created as ‘‘a large set of standardized, emotionally-evocative,internationally-accessible,color photographs that includes images across a wide range of semantic categories’’ (Lang et al., 1997, p. 1). One goal of the developers of the IAPS was to provide a standard stimulus set that could be used across a wide variety of studies on affect and emotion.This goal has been very successfully met, with IAPS pictures being used in hundreds of studies in the behavioral, social, and
One reason for the popularity of the IAPS is that each picture has a normative score for males, for females, and for both sexes combined on the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). The SAM was introduced by Lang (1980) as a quick, nonverbal method of quantifying subjective feeling states on the three fundamental dimensions of evaluation identified using the semantic differential in work by Osgood and associates (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957) and by Mehrabian and Russell (1974). The SAM was created to reduce the language requirement of the scale so that children could provide ratings using the same instrument as adults and so that ratings from different cultures could be compared. The SAM has gone through several iterations in both computer-administered and paper-andpencil formats, but its basic characteristics have remained unchanged. A series of graphical figures are used to elicit a single rating for valence (ranging from extremely pleasant to extremely unpleasant),arousal (ranging from extremely aroused to extremely calm), and dominance (ranging from totally controlled to totally in control) dimensions.
These three aspects are not parallel to each other, actually they can form a three dimension phase.

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